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Campus Counterspaces: Marginalization, Identity, and Educational Success at Historically White Institutions


This syllabus is about turning away from hysteria and hyperbole and engaging in critical discussions about historically marginalized students’ needs for identity supports, which yes, sometimes includes their need to gather together in counterspaces that offer a respite from the negative effects of marginalization.


This course is intended to equip students with knowledge of critical theory and empirical research regarding the associations between social identity and educational inequality, and the role of counterspaces as one social-identity-based intervention for reducing educational inequality. Students will critically evaluate literature to better understand: (1) racial-ethnic, socioeconomic and other aspects of stratification of educational outcomes; (2) the interconnections between social identity, academic identity, and academic success; (3) and critical understanding of diversity and integration; and (4) social identity strategies to fostering postsecondary success.


Assignments for this course are begin with individual reflection, then individual writing, and culminates with collective presentations. The writing and presentation assignments ask students to present a well-researched and theorized position regarding how the issue of diversity and/or inclusion of historically marginalized groups has touched their campus.

If you are teaching this syllabus please cite: Keels, Micere. (2020). Campus Counterspaces: Social Identity and Educational Success in Historically White Educational Spaces. [Syllabus]. Department of Comparative Human Development, University of Chicago.

An abundance of suggested readings are provided for each week so that you can select

the ones that will most interest you and your students.


Week 1: The College Completion Problem: High Risk High Reward

What are the upsides and downsides of a college degree having become central for determining one’s socioeconomic status?


Keels, M. (2020). Campus Counterspaces: Chapter 1: Outlining the Problem. 


Agnew, R., & Jones, D. H. (1988). Adapting to deprivation: An examination of inflated educational expectations. Sociological Quarterly, 29(2), 315-337.


Archer, L., & Hutchings, M. (2000). 'Bettering yourself'? Discourses of risk, cost and benefit in ethnically diverse, young working-class non-participants' constructions of higher education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 21(4), 555-574.


Baum, S., et al., (2014). “Trends in College Pricing, 2014.” Trends in Higher Education Series. New York: College Board.


Bettinger, E. (2004). How financial aid affects persistence. In Hoxby, C. (Ed.). College choices: The economics of where to go, when to go, and how to pay for it (pp. 207-238). University of Chicago Press.


Blagg, K., & Blom, E. (2018). Evaluating the Return on Investment in Higher Education: An Assessment of Individual-and State-Level Returns. Urban Institute. 


Cabrera, A. F., Nora, A., & Castaneda, M. B. (1992). The role of finances in the persistence process: A structural model. Research in higher education, 33(5), 571-593.


Casselman, B. (2014, May 27). Is college worth it? It depends on whether you graduate. The New York Times.


Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., Saez, E., Turner, N. & Yagan, D. (2017). Mobility report cards: The role of colleges in intergenerational mobility. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.  

Note: Focus on pp. 1-22.


Eberle-Sudré, K., Welch, M., & Nichols, A. H. (2015). Rising tide: Do college grad rate gains benefit all students? Washington, DC: The Education Trust.


Libassi, C. J. (2018). The neglected college race gap: Racial disparities among college completers. Center for American Progress


The Pell Institute and PennAHEAD. (2017). Indicators of higher education equity in the United States: 2017 historical trend report. Washington, DC: Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education.



Week 2: Campus Identities: Personal, Social, and Institutional 

What role does identity play in supporting and undermining the college success of  students from historically marginalized groups who are attending historically White institutions? 


Keels, M. (2020). Campus Counterspaces: Chapter 2: The Impossibility of a Colorblind Identity .


Arellano, A. R., & Padilla, A. M. (1996). Academic invulnerability among a select group of Latino university students. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 18(4), 485-507.


Aries, E., & Seider, M. (2005). The interactive relationship between class identity and the college experience: The case of lower income students. Qualitative Sociology, 28(4), 419-443.


Awad, G. H. (2007). The role of racial identity, academic self-concept, and self-esteem in the prediction of academic outcomes for African American students. Journal of Black Psychology, 33(2), 188-207.


Barajas, H. L., & Pierce, J. L. (2001). The significance of race and gender in school success among Latinas and Latinos in college. Gender & Society, 15(6), 859-878.


Collins, P. (1993). Toward a New Vision: Race, Class, and Gender as Categories of Analysis and Connection. Race, Sex & Class, 1(1), 25- 45. 


Elmore, K. C., & Oyserman, D. (2012). If ‘we’ can succeed,‘I’ can too: Identity-based motivation and gender in the classroom. Contemporary educational psychology, 37(3), 176-185.


Jones, S. R., & McEwen, M. K. (2000). A conceptual model of multiple dimensions of identity. Journal of college student development, 41(4), 405-414.


Komarraju, M., & Dial, C. (2014). Academic identity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem predict self-determined motivation and goals. Learning and Individual Differences, 32, 1-8.


Museus, S. D., & Griffin, K. A. (2011). Mapping the margins in higher education: On the promise of intersectionality frameworks in research and discourse. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2011(151), 5-13.


Ostrove, J. M., & Long, S. M. (2007). Social class and belonging: Implications for college adjustment. The Review of Higher Education, 30(4), 363-389.


Stryker, S., & Burke, P. J. (2000). The past, present, and future of an identity theory. Social psychology quarterly, 284-297.


Wijeyesinghe, C. L. & Jones, S. R. (2014). Intersectionality, Identity, and Systems of Power and Inequality in Mitchell, D., Simmons, C. Y., & Greyerbiehl, L. A. (Eds.). (2014). Intersectionality & Higher Education: Theory, Research, & Praxis. New York, NY: Peter Lang

Week 3: Microaggressions in Educational Contexts

What are educational microaggressions and how does it affects how students engage with the learning environment?


Keels, M., Durkee, M., & Hope, E. (2017). The psychological and academic costs of school-based racial and ethnic microaggressions. American Educational Research Journal, 54(6), 1316-1344.


Fischer, M. J. (2010). A longitudinal examination of the role of stereotype threat and racial climate on college outcomes for minorities at elite institutions. Social Psychology of Education, 13(1), 19-40.


Fries-Britt, S., & Griffin, K. (2007). The Black box: How high-achieving Blacks resist stereotypes about Black Americans. Journal of College Student Development, 48(5), 509-524.


Harwood, S. A., Mendenhall, R., Lee, S. S., Riopelle, C., & Huntt, M. B. (2018). Everyday racism in integrated spaces: Mapping the experiences of students of color at a diversifying predominantly white institution. Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 108(5), 1245-1259.


Lewis, J. A., Mendenhall, R., Harwood, S. A., & Huntt, M. B. (2013). Coping with gendered racial microaggressions among Black women college students. Journal of African American Studies, 17(1), 51-73.


McCabe, J. (2009). Racial and gender microaggressions on a predominantly-White campus: Experiences of Black, Latina/o and White undergraduates. Race, Gender & Class, 133-151.


Nadal, K. L., Wong, Y., Griffin, K. E., Davidoff, K., & Sriken, J. (2014). The adverse impact of racial microaggressions on college students' self-esteem. Journal of college student development, 55(5), 461-474.


Rankin, S. R., & Reason, R. D. (2005). Differing perceptions: How students of color and white students perceive campus climate for underrepresented groups. Journal of College Student Development, 46(1), 43-61.


Solorzano, D., Ceja, M., & Yosso, T. (2000). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate: The experiences of African American college students. Journal of Negro Education, 69(1–2), 60–73.

Week 4: Campus Climate and Belonging

What are campus climate and belonging and why do they matter for student persistence?


Offidani-Bertrand, C., Velez, G., Benz, C., & Keels, M. (2019, Online First). “I Wasn’t Expecting It”: High School Experiences and Navigating Belonging in the Transition to College. Emerging Adulthood.


Hart, J., & Fellabaum, J. (2008). Analyzing campus climate studies: Seeking to define and understand. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 1(4), 222-234. 


Hurtado, S., & Carter, D. F. (1997). Effects of college transition and perceptions of the campus racial climate on Latino college students' sense of belonging. Sociology of education, 324-345.


Johnson, D. R., Soldner, M., Leonard, J. B., Alvarez, P., Inkelas, K. K., Rowan-Kenyon, H. T., & Longerbeam, S. D. (2007). Examining sense of belonging among first-year undergraduates from different racial/ethnic groups. Journal of College Student Development, 48(5), 525-542.


Linley, J. L. (2017). We are (not) all Bulldogs: Minoritized peer socialization agents' meaning-making about collegiate contexts. Journal of College Student Development, 58(5), 643-656.


Locks, A. M., Hurtado, S., Bowman, N. A., & Oseguera, L. (2008). Extending notions of campus climate and diversity to students' transition to college. The Review of Higher Education, 31(3), 257-285.


Museus, S. D., Yi, V., & Saelua, N. (2017). The impact of culturally engaging campus environments on sense of belonging. The Review of Higher Education, 40(2), 187-215.


Nuñez, A. M. (2009). A critical paradox? Predictors of latino students' sense of belonging in college. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 2(1), 46-61.



Week 5: Diverse Categories of Educationally Marginalized Students  

Why is it important to explicitly examine how educational marginalization is experienced across a wide range of student characteristics? 


Johnson, D. R. (2012). Campus racial climate perceptions and overall sense of belonging among racially diverse women in STEM majors. Journal of College Student Development, 53(2), 336-346.


Maramba, D. C., & Museus, S. D. (2013). Examining the effects of campus climate, ethnic group cohesion, and cross-cultural interaction on Filipino American students' sense of belonging in college. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 14(4), 495-522.


Museus, S. D., & Smith, E. J. (2016). The culturally engaging campus environments model and survey. A report on new tools for assessing campus environments and diverse college student outcomes.


Rankin, S. R. (2005). Campus climates for sexual minorities. New Directions for Student Services, 2005(111), 17-23. 


Stebleton, M. J., Soria, K. M., Huesman Jr, R. L., & Torres, V. (2014). Recent immigrant students at research universities: The relationship between campus climate and sense of belonging. Journal of College Student Development, 55(2), 196-202.


Wells, A. V., & Horn, C. (2015). The Asian American college experience at a diverse institution: Campus climate as a predictor of sense of belonging. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 52(2), 149-163.


Woodford, M. R., & Kulick, A. (2015). Academic and social integration on campus among sexual minority students: The impacts of psychological and experiential campus climate. American Journal of Community Psychology, 55(1-2), 13-24.


Week 6: Statement, Statistical, and Interactional Diversity

What are the various levels of campus diversity and how do they matter for student development?


Keels, M. (2020). Campus Counterspaces: Chapter 6: Importance of a Critical Mass


Antonio, A. L. (2004). When does race matter in college friendships? Exploring men's diverse and homogeneous friendship groups. The Review of Higher Education, 27(4), 553-575.


Astin, A. W. (1993). Diversity and multiculturalism on the campus: How are students affected?. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 25(2), 44-49.


Bowen, W. G., & Bok, D. (1999). The shape of the river: Long-term consequences of considering race in college and university admissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


Bowman, N. A., & Brandenberger, J. W. (2012). Experiencing the unexpected: Toward a model of college diversity experiences and attitude change. The Review of Higher Education, 35(2), 179-205.


Chang, M. J. (1999). Does racial diversity matter?: The educational impact of a racially diverse undergraduate population. Journal of College Student Development.


Hurtado, S., Clayton-Pedersen, A. R., Allen, W. R., & Milem, J. F. (1998). Enhancing campus climates for racial/ethnic diversity: Educational policy and practice. The Review of Higher Education, 21(3), 279-302.


Garces, L. M., & Jayakumar, U. M. (2014). Dynamic diversity toward a contextual understanding of critical mass. Educational Researcher, 43(3), 115-124.


Park, J. J., & Kim, Y. K. (2013). Interracial friendship and structural diversity: Trends for Greek, religious, and ethnic student organizations. The Review of Higher Education, 37(1), 1-24.


Pike, G. R., & Kuh, G. D. (2006). Relationships among structural diversity, informal peer interactions and perceptions of the campus environment. The Review of Higher Education, 29(4), 425-450.



Week 7: Theorizing Counterspaces

What is the importance of having a  theoretical definition for what is, and therefore is not a counterspace?


Black, R., & Bimper Jr, A. Y. (2017). Successful Undergraduate African American Men's Navigation and Negotiation of Academic and Social Counter-Spaces as Adaptation to Racism at Historically White Institutions. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, .


Carter, D. J. (2007). Why the Black kids sit together at the stairs: The role of identity-affirming counter-spaces in a predominantly White high school. The Journal of Negro Education, 542-554.


Case, A. D., & Hunter, C. D. (2012). Counterspaces: A unit of analysis for understanding the role of settings in marginalized individuals’ adaptive responses to oppression. American Journal of Com- munity Psychology, 50, 257–270


Cook-Sather, A. (2016). Creating brave spaces within and through student-faculty pedagogical partnerships. Teaching and Learning Together in Higher Education, 1(18), 1-9.


Ong, M., Smith, J. M., & Ko, L. T. (2018). Counterspaces for women of color in STEM higher education: Marginal and central spaces for persistence and success. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55(2), 206-245. 


Seider, S. C., Clark, S., & Soutter, M. (2015). A critically conscious approach to fostering the success of college students from underrepresented groups. Journal of College and Character, 16(4), 253-262.


Yosso, T., & Lopez, C. B. (2010). Counterspaces in a hostile place: Critical race theory analysis of campus cultural centers. In L.D. Patton (Ed.). Culture centers in higher education: Perspectives on identity, theory, and practice. Sterling, VA: Stylus. (pp. 83-104).

Week 8: The Queer History of Safe Spaces

What are the identity threats that queer students face on college campuses and what are the benefits of them gathering together in “physical low-risk spaces”?


Beemyn, B. (2003). Serving the needs of transgender college students. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education, 1(1), 33-50.


Cerezo, A., & Bergfeld, J. (2013). Meaningful LGBTQ inclusion in schools: The importance of diversity representation and counterspaces. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 7(4), 355-371.


Fox, C. (2007). From Transaction to Transformation:(En) Countering White Heteronormativity in" Safe Spaces". College English, 69(5), 496-511.


Hackford-Peer, K. (2010). In the name of safety: Discursive positionings of queer youth. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 29(6), 541-556.


Hartal, G. (2018). Fragile subjectivities: constructing queer safe spaces. Social & Cultural Geography, 19(8), 1053-1072.


Nadal, K. L., Issa, M. A., Leon, J., Meterko, V., Wideman, M., & Wong, Y. (2011). Sexual orientation microaggressions:“Death by a thousand cuts” for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Journal of LGBT Youth, 8(3), 234-259.


Poynter, K. J., & Tubbs, N. J. (2008). Safe zones: Creating LGBT safe space ally programs. Journal of LGBT Youth, 5(1), 121-132.


Vaccaro, A., & Mena, J. A. (2011). It's not burnout, it's more: Queer college activists of color and mental health. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 15(4), 339-367.

Week 9: Physical and Ideological Counterspaces

What are the unifying aspects across a broad range of different forms of counterspaces?


Brooms, D. R. (2018). ‘Building Us Up’: Supporting Black Male College Students in a Black Male Initiative Program. Critical Sociology, 44(1), 141-155.


Grier‐Reed, T. L. (2010). The African American student network: Creating sanctuaries and counterspaces for coping with racial microaggressions in higher education settings. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 49(2), 181-188.


Harper, S. R. (2013). Am I my brother’s teacher? Black undergraduates, racial socialization, and peer pedagogies in predominantly white postsecondary contexts. Review of Research in Education, 37(1), 183-211.


Lane, T. B. (2016). Research environments as counterspaces? Examining spaces that inhibit and support science identity development for black students in STEM. Urban Education Research & Policy Annuals, 4(1).


McClure, C. (2018). " Count-our-Space": Examining the Counterspaces of Black Women Pursuing the Doctorate in Education (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh).


Mwangi, G., Chrystal, A., Bettencourt, G. M., & Malaney, V. K. (2018). Collegians creating (counter) space online: A critical discourse analysis of the I, Too, Am social media movement. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 11(2), 146.


Nuñez, A. M. (2011). Counterspaces and connections in college transitions: First-generation Latino students' perspectives on Chicano studies. Journal of College Student Development, 52(6), 639-655.


Nenga, S. K., Alvarado, G. A., & Blyth, C. S. (2015). “I Kind of Found My People”: Latino/a College Students’ Search for Social Integration on Campus. In College Students' Experiences of Power and Marginality (pp. 37-53). Routledge.

Week 10: Marked and Unmarked Counterspaces

What is the myth versus the reality of minority student self-segregation on college campuses?


Keels, M. (2020). Campus Counterspaces: Chapter 7. Finding One’s People and One’s Self on Campus 


Bohnert, A. M., Aikins, J. W., & Edidin, J. (2007). The role of organized activities in facilitating social adaptation across the transition to college. Journal of Adolescent Research, 22(2), 189-208.


Brekhus, W. (1998). A sociology of the unmarked: Redirecting our focus. Sociological Theory, 16(1), 34-51.


Duster, T. (1991). Understanding Self-Segregation on the Campus. Chronicle of Higher Education, 38(5).


Ethier, K. A., & Deaux, K. (1994). Negotiating social identity when contexts change: Maintaining identification and responding to threat. Journal of personality and social psychology, 67(2), 243.


Kim, Y. K., Park, J. J., & Koo, K. K. (2015). Testing self-segregation: Multiple-group structural modeling of college students’ interracial friendship by race. Research in Higher Education, 56(1), 57-77.


Museus, S. D. (2008). Understanding the role of ethnic student organizations in facilitating cultural adjustment and membership among African American and Asian American college students. Journal of College Student Development, 59(6), 568-586.


Saenz, V. B., Ngai, H. N., & Hurtado, S. (2007). Factors influencing positive interactions across race for African American, Asian American, Latino, and White college students. Research in Higher Education, 48(1), 1-38.


Sidanius, J., Van Laar, C., Levin, S., & Sinclair, S. (2004). Ethnic enclaves and the dynamics of social identity on the college campus: the good, the bad, and the ugly. Journal of personality and social psychology, 87(1), 96.


Villalpando, O. (2003). Self‐segregation or self‐preservation? A critical race theory and Latina/o critical theory analysis of a study of Chicana/o college students. Qualitative Studies in Education, 16(5), 619-646.


Guiffrida, D. A. (2003). African American student organizations as agents of social integration. Journal of College Student Development, 44(3), 304-319.


Week 11: Research Methods: Critical Examination of Educational Issues

What do we gain by adding a critical lens to the study of educational inequality?


Bonilla-Silva, E. (1997). Rethinking racism: Toward a structural interpretation. American Sociological Review, 465-480.


Bowleg, L. (2008). When Black+ lesbian+ woman≠ Black lesbian woman: The methodological challenges of qualitative and quantitative intersectionality research. Sex roles, 59(5-6), 312-325.


Hylton, K. (2012). Talk the talk, walk the walk: Defining critical race theory in research. Race Ethnicity and Education, 15(1), 23-41.


Huber, L. P. (2009). Disrupting apartheid of knowledge: Testimonio as methodology in Latina/o critical race research in education. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 22(6), 639-654.


Ladson-Billings, G., & Tate, W. (1995). Toward a critical race theory of education. Teachers College Record, 97, 47-68.


Linley, J. L. (2018). Racism here, racism there, racism everywhere: The racial realities of minoritized peer socialization agents at a historically white institution. Journal of College Student Development, 59(1), 21-36.


McCoy, D. L., & Rodricks, D. J. (2015). Critical Race Theory in Higher Education: 20 Years of Theoretical and Research Innovations: ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 41, Number 3. John Wiley & Sons.


McGee, E. O., & Stovall, D. (2015). Reimagining critical race theory in education: Mental health, healing, and the pathway to liberatory praxis. Educational Theory, 65(5), 491-511.


Parker, L., & Lynn, M. (2002). What’s race got to do with it? Critical race theory’s conflicts with and connections to qualitative research methodology and epistemology. Qualitative inquiry, 8(1), 7-22.


Solórzano, D. G., & Yosso, T. J. (2002). Critical race methodology: Counter-storytelling as an analytical framework for educational research. Qualitative Inquiry, 8, 23– 44.  


Week 12: Curricular Counterspaces

What are some of the ways to make diversity work in classrooms?  


Arao, B., & Clemens, K. (2013). From safe spaces to brave spaces: A new way to frame dialogue around diversity and social justice. In L. Landreman (Ed.), The art of effective facilitation: Reflections from social justice educators (pp. 135–150). Sterling, VA: Stylus


Barrett, B. J. (2010). Is “safety” dangerous? A critical examination of the classroom as safe space. Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 1(1), 9.


Holley, L. C., & Steiner, S. (2005). Safe space: Student perspectives on classroom environment. Journal of Social Work Education, 41(1), 49–64


Mae, B., Cortez, D., & Preiss, R. W. (2013). Safe spaces, difficult dialogues, and critical thinking. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 7(2), 5.


Mayhew, M. J., Grunwald, H. E., & Dey, E. L. (2005). Curriculum matters: Creating a positive climate for diversity from the student perspective. Research in Higher Education, 46(4), 389-412.


Nuñez, A. M. (2011). Counterspaces and connections in college transitions: First-generation Latino students' perspectives on Chicano studies. Journal of College Student Development, 52(6), 639-655.


Pasque, P. A., Chesler, M. A., Charbeneau, J., & Carlson, C. (2013). Pedagogical approaches to student racial conflict in the classroom. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 6(1), 1.


Schwartz, J. (2014). Classrooms of spatial justice: Counter-spaces and young men of color in a GED program. Adult Education Quarterly, 64(2), 110-127.


Wane, N., Shahjahan, R. A., & Wagner, A. (2004). Walking the talk: Decolonizing the politics of equity of knowledge and charting the course for an inclusive curriculum in higher education. Canadian Journal of Development Studies/Revue canadienne d'études du développement, 25(3), 499-510.


Vaccaro, A., & Camba-Kelsay, M. J. (2016). Centering women of color in academic counterspaces: A critical race analysis of teaching, learning, and classroom dynamics. Rowman & Littlefield.



Week 13: Campus Counterspaces and Activism

In what ways is the “personal political” for minority students attending Historically White institutions?


Keels, M. (2020). Campus Counterspaces: Chapter  5. Power in the in Midst of Powerlessness  


Broadhurst, C. J. (2014). Campus activism in the 21st century: A historical framing. New Directions for Higher Education, 2014, 3–15. 


Cronin, T. J., Levin, S., Branscombe, N. R., van Laar, C., & Tropp, L. R. (2012). Ethnic identification in response to perceived discrimination protects well-being and promotes activism: A longitudinal study of Latino college students. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 15(3), 393-407.


Crossley, N., & Ibrahim, J. (2012). Critical mass, social networks and collective action: Exploring student political worlds. Sociology, 46(4), 596-612.


DeAngelo, L., Schuster, M. T., & Stebleton, M. J. (2016). California DREAMers: Activism, identity, and empowerment among undocumented college students. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 9(3), 216.


Forenza, B., Rogers, B., & Lardier, D. T. (2017). What facilitates and supports political activism by, and for, undocumented students?. The Urban Review, 49(4), 648-667.


Hoffman, G. D., & Mitchell, T. D. (2016). Making diversity “everyone’s business”: A discourse analysis of institutional responses to student activism for equity and inclusion. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 9(3), 277.


Hope, E. C., Velez, G., Offidani-Bertrand, C., Keels, M., & Durkee, M. I. (2018). Political activism and mental health among Black and Latinx college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(1), 26.


Hope, E. C., Keels, M., & Durkee, M. I. (2016). Participation in Black Lives Matter and deferred action for childhood arrivals: Modern activism among Black and Latino college students. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 9(3), 203.


Ince, J., Finlay, B. M., & Rojas, F. (2018). College campus activism: Distinguishing between liberal reformers and conservative crusaders. Sociology Compass, 12(9), e12603.


Leath, S., & Chavous, T. (2017). “We really protested”: The Influence of Sociopolitical Beliefs, Political Self-efficacy, and Campus Racial Climate on Civic Engagement among Black College Students attending Predominantly White Institutions. The Journal of Negro Education, 86(3), 220-237.


Linder, C., Quaye, S. J., Lange, A. C., Roberts, R. E., Lacy, M. C., & Okello, W. K. (2019). " A Student Should Have the Privilege of Just Being a Student": Student Activism as Labor. The Review of Higher Education, 42(5), 37-62.


Linder, C. (2018). Power-conscious and intersectional approaches to supporting student activists: Considerations for learning and development. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education.


Williamson, J. A. (1999). In defense of themselves: The Black student struggle for success and recognition at predominantly White colleges and universities. Journal of Negro Education, 92-105.


Young, S. L., & McKibban, A. R. (2014). Creating safe places: A collaborative autoethnography on LGBT social activism. Sexuality & Culture, 18(2), 361-384.

Week 14: Critical Role of Faculty Diversity in Student Inclusion 

What challenges arise when there is a large diversity gap between the composition of the student body and the composition of the faculty?


Bennett, A. K., Tillman-Kelly, D. L., Shuck, J. R., Viera, J. M., & Wall, B. J. (2011). Narratives of Black and Latino faculty at a Midwestern research university. Journal of the Student Personnel Association at Indiana University, 46-61.


Cress, C. M. (2008). Creating inclusive learning communities: the role of student–faculty relationships in mitigating negative campus climate. Learning Inquiry, 2(2), 95-111.


Laird, T. F. N. (2011). Measuring the diversity inclusivity of college courses. Research in Higher Education, 52(6), 572-588.


Mayhew, M. J., & Grunwald, H. E. (2006). Factors contributing to faculty incorporation of diversity-related course content. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(1), 148-168.


Milem, J. F. (2001). Increasing Diversity Benefits: How Campus Climate and Teaching Methods Affect Student Outcomes.  In: Orfield, Gary, Ed., Diversity Challenged: Evidence on the Impact of Affirmative Action. Cambridge, Harvard Education Publishing Group, 2001. p233-249.


Piercy, F., Giddings, V., Allen, K., Dixon, B., Meszaros, P., & Joest, K. (2005). Improving campus climate to support faculty diversity and retention: A pilot program for new faculty. Innovative Higher Education, 30(1), 53-66.


Vaccaro, A. (2012). Campus microclimates for LGBT faculty, staff, and students: An exploration of the intersections of social identity and campus roles. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 49(4), 429-446.


Week 15: Institutionally Supported Counterspaces

What are some of the ways to make diversity work on college campuses?

Keels, M. (2020). Campus Counterspaces: Chapter 11: (Dis)Integration


Milem, J. F., Chang, M. J., & Antonio, A. L. (2005). Making diversity work on campus: A research-based perspective. Washington, DC: Association American Colleges and Universities.


Bender, S. W. (2016). Campus Racial Unrest and the Diversity Bargain,” Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equity 5 (1), 47-56. 


Dei, G. (2016). Decolonizing the university: the challenges and possibilities of inclusive education. Socialist Studies/Études Socialistes, 11(1), 23-61.


Franklin, J. (2016). Racial microaggressions, racial battle fatigue, and racism-related stress in higher education. Journal of Student Affairs at New York University, 12, 44.


Hurtado, S., Carter, D. F., & Kardia, D. (1998). The climate for diversity: Key issues for institutional self‐study. New Directions for Institutional Research, 1998(98), 53-63.


Hurtado, S., Clayton-Pedersen, A. R., Allen, W. R., & Milem, J. F. (1998). Enhancing campus climates for racial/ethnic diversity: Educational policy and practice. The Review of Higher Education, 21(3), 279-302.


Museus, S. D. (2014). The culturally engaging campus environments (CECE) model: A new theory of success among racially diverse college student populations. In Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp. 189-227). Springer Netherlands.


Pike, G. R., Kuh, G. D., & Gonyea, R. M. (2007). Evaluating the rationale for affirmative action in college admissions: Direct and indirect relationships between campus diversity and gains in understanding diverse groups. Journal of College

Student Development, 48(2), 166-182.



Weekly Journal: Students are to track their learning in a google doc shared with the instructor. This journal is focused on fostering self reflection in relation to how one’s identity has been associated with their educational journey, and how those of different identities may have had a different identity-connected educational journey. Each week the students is to briefly reflect on one of three questions in relation to the week’s readings: What aspects of and in what ways was their identities were implicated in the readings? What aspect of their identities could be associated with marginalization and/or advantage in historically white educational contexts? What did they learn about how an identity different from one of their identities could be associated with marginalization and/or advantage in historically white educational contexts?

Grading scale: writing shows strong self-reflection and connects it with the readings; writing shows strong self-reflection but is not connected with the readings; writing shows modest self-reflection; writing does not illustrate an attempt to engage in self-reflection. 


Final Reflection Paper: Students are to complete a synthesizing paper that is a meta-reflection of their weekly journal entries. The purpose of this paper is a brief 2-page single-spaced reflection on your reflection of how your identity has been associated with your educational journey. This paper should clearly articulate your personal learnings from examining your educational experiences in connection with the readings.

Grading focus: This assignment is graded based on your ability to reflect on what you have learned and any growth in your self-reflective understanding of identity and education. 


Comprehensive Class Paper and Presentation: Students are to write an individual paper and work in small groups to do a presentation on some aspect of how the issue of diversity and/or inclusion of historically marginalized groups has touched their campus. Each student is to select one social identity category for their focus of their paper. Students should examine research articles, the larger news/popular debate, campus reports and campus news articles, and interview relevant stakeholders on campus. The paper should conclude with research supported policy and/or practice recommendation(s) for addressing the issue. Students are grouped based on the social identity category that is the focus of their paper. Each group is to complete a 20 minute collective presentation that integrates their individual papers.  

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